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Posts from the ‘Education’ Category

26
Sep

Research & Issue Requests

Your comments and concerns are important to us.  

If there’s a topic you’d like more information on or a

problem that need to be addressed, feel free to post it here.  

We look forward to the discovery of new information in the field of psychology and

would love to hear from you.  

 

 

Please use the comment section below and provide as much detail on your topic as possible.  

We will review your information and get back with you in a timely manner.

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26
Sep

How to Improve Others

How to Improve Others

According to the Decision Book (2012), there are many models that can be used in the decision-making process.  The model chosen for this discussion is The Role-Playing Model. The author presents ways in which your point of view can be intentionally changed. He explains that sometimes people are resistant to new points of view because it does not fit in with their present ideals. Through observational research it was found that nine profiles define the characteristics of people (Krogerus & Tschappeler, 2012, p. 143). They are:

Action-oriented: do-er, implementer, perfectionist.
Communication-oriented: coordinator, team player, trailblazer.
Knowledge-oriented: innovator, observer, specialist.

It is proposed that in order to change your viewpoint, you must change your thought process to that of the idea’s creator. In doing so, you are able to step outside of yourself and begin to understand and possibly accept new ideas or concepts.

When working with diverse populations and implementing integrative education, an open frame of mind and understanding are required. For example, in order to bring forth different perspectives on any given course room discussion instructors must be accepting of varying viewpoints and backgrounds in order to optimize the expansion of knowledge.

Reference

Krogerus, M. & Tschappeler, R. (2012). The Decision Book: 50 Models for Strategic Thinking. New York, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.

26
Sep

Leadership & Integrative Learning

Theories of Leadership & Integrative Learning

The complex set of characteristics and adaptations needed to be a leader have been evaluated by psychologists and educational theorists since the 1930s (Williams, 2006). Through their research, certain traits that make up the components of a leader have been identified as social intelligence, behavioral flexibility, need for power, energy, cognitive complexity, and persuasiveness (Zaccaro, 2001). These traits contribute to the overall qualities needed to lead in an organizational setting. Leaders influence others in effective behavioral delegation to accomplish necessary task completion by others in order to reach a set goal.

Two factors have emerged that define the focus of leadership: being task focused and relationship focused (Williams, 2006). By valuing followers and demonstrating appreciation for their contributions to the task they are being led to complete, leaders create an atmosphere in which projects goals are obtained. These traits are emphasized again when observed in a school setting. According to Oyinlade (2003), effective leadership fits better in educational settings when the leader shows more people-oriented traits than a job-centered focus. The value placed upon the individual follower establishes a setting in which the follower achieves for the intrinsic motivation satisfied through appreciation and appraisal.

Behavior theories focus on “leader behaviors and differed dramatically from the trait approach—moving leadership conceptualization from what a leader is to what a leader does” (Williams, 2006). By observing the actions of a leader, researchers can identify specific behaviors needed to reach organizational goals. While behavioral models provide valuable information on the actions needed to lead, they deemphasize the importance of cognition and motivation.

In relation to integrative learning, leaders are needed to create the setting in which concepts and diversity are blended. They are at the head of the class presenting new knowledge while creating an open setting for insertion of situational experience and application from students. Looking back to the traits and motivational techniques required for such an experience, one can agree that this position takes cognitive complexity, behavioral flexibility and an appreciation for the opinions and experiences of student followers.

 

References

Oyinlade, A., Gellhaus, M., & Darboe, K. (2003). Essential behavioral qualities for effective leadership in schools for students who are visually impaired: A national study. Journal Of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 97(7), 389-402.

Williams, F., Ricciardi, D., & Blackbourn, R. (2006). Theories of Leadership. Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration. Vol. 2. 586-592. Sage Publications, Inc.

Zaccaro, S. J. (2001). Behavioral complexity theories of executive leadership: Empirical review and evaluation. In , The nature of executive leadership: A conceptual and empirical analysis of success (pp. 149-171). Washington, DC US: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10398-005

 

26
Sep

Theoretical Framework for Practice

 

Establishing a Theoretical Framework for Practice

Angel Pumila

 

 

Theories of Adult Education

Within the field of education, there are many theories of adult learning.  Some find that behavior is the motivation for learning.  Others find that interactions with society or organization of thought processes contribute to the acquisition of knowledge.  Whatever the case may be, educators must understand the mechanisms of student learning in order to be effective in their teaching methods.

 Behaviorism

Scandura’s structural learning (SLT) is a behaviorism theory in which subject matter is broken down into smaller pieces. These pieces or rules are built upon to bring forth the higher-level concept. “SLT is generally known for its applicability to mathematics, but the ideas can be extended to other areas” (Scandura, 2001). For example in mathematics, addition and subtraction must be learned before advancing to algebra or geometry. In English, the rules of phonics need to be known before writing a research paper. Once the elements of any particular piece of knowledge were known, Scandura attempted to identify what a person knows and how it will impact behavior.

Scandura’s goal was to be able to predict behavior and knowledge through computer representation. Over a thirty year period, researchers were finally able to demonstrate their findings through directed graphs. While the graphs were able to accurately show knowledge in relation to behavioral outcomes, they could not display if the subject was an expert in the knowledge area. By 1994, Scandura had refined his method to include computer software that displayed a “relationship between data structure analysis and process analyses” (Scandura, 2007). To put it simply, when using an abstract process the data shown was more complex. On the other hand, complex processes produced simple data. This model was finally able to provide researchers with a view of the expertise level of the subject.

Cognitivism

Vygotsky’s cognitive theory pointed to two types of processes involved with learning; 1) within their zone of proximal development in which their abilities are matched to learning 2) immediately outside this zone, where with assistance more complex learning can evolve (English, 2006). An important element of this theory is that learning occurs when it is related to previously knowledge and all individuals learn in different ways.

Constructivism

Similar to cognivism, constructivism is the view of learning involving connections to previous knowledge or experiences.  This theory expands to add that perception of knowledge impacts the process of learning. According to theorists, active participation and relational meaning with learning concepts is essential in education structures. 

Strategies Drawn from Theories

            Finding a place for SLT in the integrative education model is easy given the definition of integrative learning. “Integrative learning comes in many varieties: connecting skills and knowledge from multiple sources and experiences; applying theory to practice in various settings; utilizing diverse and even contradictory points of view; and, understanding issues and positions contextually” (Huber & Hutchings, 2004). Just like SLT, integrative learning is a connection of information that is built upon previous smaller bits of information. Yet unlike integrative learning, Structural Learning Theory has the ability to view current knowledge through computer generated testing, find gaps in that knowledge, and suggest which gaps are in need of being filled. It is the ‘ah ha’ moment that we experience when learning in the integrative model.

            When applying this model to a developmental psychology class, course concepts are broken down into smaller sections presented over the span of the course.  Each section is then evaluated to find smaller components to present in individual lessons.  When combined, all parts belonging to the whole create the bigger picture of the course concept.   The cognitivism theory can be used in the classroom by the presentation of relative information for independent learning and more complex matter for group learning and instructor-based learning.  Let’s use an evaluation of case studies for example.  Most students have the ability to read a study and identify the cause and effect independently.  Yet when introducing new concepts such as statistical testing of null hypothesis, a hands on group project with step-by-step definitions and instructions from a teacher would be more effective than students learning on their own. 

Constructivism models could be applied to a similar example.  The difference would be that the study would have to be on a topic that is familiar to the students’ personal experiences as a whole.  Also, it would need to include learning concepts delivered through the interpretation of the study. 

Integrative Education

Integrative studies goes beyond the one size fits all model of education and expands to include experiences and knowledge that students can relate to and apply in areas that fit their individual needs. For my goals, this path merges educational theory with psychological knowledge in order to teach psychology at a college level. The combination of graduate level courses in both subject areas allows for greater understanding of processes and theories in both subject areas. Within this program, as with many universities today, courses are taught according to the integrative approach. Students share experiences and information, expand upon content and ideas, and provide multiple perspectives of the content being taught. This approach provides a better understanding of the concepts by taking them out of the textbooks and putting them into real situations that people can relate to.

As far as preferred classroom implementation, constructivism would be the best for active, long-term retention of learning.  When students can relate their personal experiences to what they are learning, it becomes more applicable to their life.  My personal experience with applying this theory to instruction is, however, limited.  In order to become more effective in the application of constructivism learning theory, more practice in the creation of lesson plans and course materials is needed. 

 

 

References 

English, F. (2006). Theories of Learning. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.library.capella.edu/ps/i.do?action=interpret&id=GALE%7CCX3469600354&v=2.1&u=minn04804&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&authCount=1.

Huber, M. & Hutchings, P. (2004). Integrative Learning: Mapping the Terrain. Retrieved from http://www.aacu.org/integrative_learning/pdfs/ILP_Statement.pdf.

Highered.com. (2013). Teacher Requirements. Retrieved from www.highered.com.

Scandura, J.M. (2001). Structural Learning Theory: Current status and new perspectives. Instructional Science, 29 (4-5), 311-336.

Scandura, J. M. (2007). Knowledge Representation in Structural Learning Theory and Relationships to Adaptive Learning and Tutoring Systems. Technology, Instruction, Cognition & Learning, 5(2), 169-271.

The Chronicle. (2013). Psychology Instructor. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/jobs/0000766177-01

25
Sep

Interview: Advice for the Teacher

Interview: Advice for the Teacher

Patricia Mezu is an associate collaborator in the Middle East with KDSL.  She has spent her career teaching others about the best and most effective practices in early childhood education both in and out of the classroom. In doing so, Patricia is aware of the wide variety of obstacles that teachers encounter on a daily basis.  These issues span from student childhood disorders and  curriculum adaptations to performance pressures from school management officials.

As more and more children are diagnosed with attention deficits, teachers must be prepared to meet the different needs of these children. Mezu says that there are numerous tools teachers can use to keep a child’s attention, including sustained eye contact when communicating, a gentle touch on the shoulder to gain attention, multifaceted planning (incorporating visual, audio and tactile learning techniques), short and focused learning activities, and activities that incorporate the use of gross motor skills, to name a few.

 Mezu recommends that teachers adapt the curriculum to suit the individual requirements of each child when working with a group of children who may be at different levels of comprehension. “Sustained observation and planning on an individual basis for each pupil are the best ways to meet the needs of a group of children,” she said. “Working with pupils in groups based on their abilities and having teaching tools and activities within the classroom that cater to different abilities ensure that pupils are able to be challenged when/if required.”

Teachers sometimes experience pressure from school officials with regard to student performance because of a lack of awareness of what the curriculum requires, Mezu explains. “In the Middle East, equating and imposing Western values in non-Western settings can also become a problem.” Her advice for teachers is “preparation, preparation, preparation. Remain in touch with best practices, stay teachable, have a forum that you can tap into to keep yourself on track and to air any problems, and link up with a good mentor.”

25
Sep

Training the Teacher

Training the Teacher:

Informational Interview Report

Angel Pumila

Tamas Lorincz is an associate at the International Teacher Development Institute, as well as a freelance training consultant for educators worldwide.  In the past, Lorincz has served as an English teacher in the public education system in Budapest and an online course developer in Hungary. His position in the organizational structure of higher education as an instructional designer reported to the school of education and the provost in a horizontal model.  Lorincz was chosen for this interview because of his vast experience in many roles within the higher education system.  His experience relates to professional goals by providing insight into the skills required for effective teaching practices needed for a faculty position in higher education.

Interview Questions:

1)        What is the number one issue that you run across when evaluating teacher performance?

2)        What is the strategy that you use to improve these areas of teacher performance?

3)        Are there any specific methods that you use when developing course book materials?

4)        What measures do you use to track the success of professional development programs?

5)        From your experience, what are the cultural differences in teaching and learning styles in Europe versus the Middle East?

Tamas Lorincz has spent decades imparting his knowledge to teachers in an effort to help them better communicate material to students. He has developed not only textbooks and programs for secondary schools and universities in Europe and the Middle East, but he has also developed online resources in language teaching and learning. With a master’s degree in TESOL, Lorincz’s goal is to improve the learning experience for students and teachers.

Lorincz believes that delivering material does not necessarily mean that students will learn that material. Teachers must give students tasks and activities that help them learn to think critically, ask questions, and debate topics. “Teachers have to learn to be critical thinkers and independent learners before they can teach students in ways that are more meaningful and useful for them. Clinging on to old ideas of what a teacher is or should be is one of the biggest problems. A key step forward is to teach teachers to be able to say, ‘I don’t know. Let’s find it out together!’”  (Pumila & Lorincz, 2013).

Another issue that teachers face is how to deliver constructive criticism. While learning how to criticize, teachers must learn also how to accept criticism. Many times, teachers try to be nice and avoid criticism, which can be detrimental to students, Lorincz says.

Demonstration lessons are one way in which Lorincz helps teacher learn to communicate with students so that students will pay attention and actually learn the material being taught. Teachers are invited to observe Lorincz’s teaching methods and then discuss their thoughts about their observations. Lorincz also helps with lesson planning and delivery of information in ways that enable students to absorb the information. He believes that teachers can become enriched from observing other teachers, collaborating, and sharing ideas and experiences.

When developing course materials for textbooks, Lorincz considers that the material has to be relevant for the students it targets. “An important step is looking at ways of presenting and setting up the task in a way that it results in meaningful interaction between the students and the point of the activity is fulfilled. It is also essential to present materials as part of a longer process, and that students have ample opportunities to recycle and re-contextualise the information/knowledge acquired. A course book is a useful thing only to the extent it allows teachers to tweak and expand and customise it to meet the specific needs of their students and the curriculum” (Pumila & Lorincz, 2013).

Lorincz believes that teachers should build his/her Professional Learning Network (PLN) as a way to continually further their own education. For any professional development program to be a success trainees should have a choice in deciding the focus of the training. “It is far too frequently the case that a school administrator with little hands-on knowledge decides what the training has to be on. As a result, the training rarely responds to teachers’ real needs. This usually leaves the trainees frustrated and the trainer feeling awkward. Trainers can counter this to a certain extent by being flexible and prepared for making on-the-spot changes to the training program after assessing the trainees’ real needs” (Pumila & Lorincz, 2013).

Trainers should profile their audience and conduct needs analysis to better assist those who attend workshops and seminars. The first part of any session should be spent determining the basic premises of the training. Once the training session has been completed, Lorincz likes to ask participants to reflect on how and why the activities in the session can be useful to them. His goal is to foster the skills of giving feedback and critical thinking. After the session or program is completed, there must also be follow-up. Trainees should know how to get in touch with the instructor, and instructors must answer all questions that arise even months after the session. Follow-up workshops and/or classroom observations are also recommended.

Lorincz says there are many cultural differences in teaching and learning styles in Europe and the Middle East. Education in Europe focuses on creative thinking, whereas Middle Eastern education systems still teach students mostly what they need to pass exams. “This is partly due to the fact that Middle Eastern education systems are still plagued by too much testing, and teachers tend to focus on providing students with the knowledge they will need for the exam rather than skills they need in order to become effective 21st century thinkers and learners.  Exams also put great strain on the teacher-student relationship. It is much less democratic than in a European context where the focus is on developing students’ thinking skills and providing them with means of exploring topics and experimenting with the information they have acquired. In the Middle East, a teacher’s role is by and large still seen as information disseminator and the students are the information consumers. There is very little reliance on students’ own interests and experiences as a source of learning. There also seems to be a growing gap between what students learn at school and their life outside the classroom” (Pumila & Lorincz, 2013).  By acknowledging the existence of cultural differences in learning, educators can begin to understand how each student approaches education in order to plan for effective lesson delivery.

Methodologies must be reformed in the Middle East to help student development and give students a better chance, according to Lorincz. In a testing-oriented environment, students experience a fear of failure, which can cause unnecessary stress. “It is time to help teachers and students realise that making mistakes and failing at tasks is an essential part of learning and discovering our abilities and limitations” (Pumila & Lorincz, 2013).  There are, however, positive aspects to Middle Eastern education, especially the multilingual-multicultural environment in which speaking English well is a tool of survival. In Europe, that approach has been met with mixed reactions. There is also a growing demand for new technologies in the Middle East, which correlates with new approaches to learning. Students there are eager to use these new learning tools. Fierce competition between schools in the Middle East forces them to keep abreast of the latest trends, methods, and technologies.

“The fact that not everything taught (i.e. delivered by the teacher) will be learned (i.e. acquired in a reusable way by the student) has not been completely accepted, and teachers in the classrooms I have seen still believe that what they have delivered will be learned. Teachers have to start asking questions, looking for answers, and looking at different aspect of the same issue” (Pumila & Lorincz, 2013).

Lorincz provides insight into the requirements and challenges in the teaching profession.  He points out that the act of student learning is more complicated than simply providing instructional lectures.  It requires material presentations in multiple formats aimed at the differences in student learning styles in order to optimize the learning experience.  On-going teacher training and networking is also a requirement in order to enhance lessons with best practices found through the experiences of multiple educators.  As a future educator, a passion for continuous learning and improvement are great attributes to the education profession.

 

 

References

Pumila, A. (Interviewer) & Lorincz, T. (Interviewee). (2013).  Informational interview report.  Capella University.

25
Sep

Career Change in College

Career Change in College

Angel Pumila

Project Overview

The manner in which education is delivered has evolved over the years, changing from a fact-recall setting to an integrative learning experience that combines newly acquired knowledge with application to personal experiences and viewpoints. This model adds an element of diversity to education to create a holistic approach to learning. “Emphasis on the lived experience of the scientific “observer” links the power of scientific knowing with the feelings we have before a work of art and the compassion we feel for those who suffer, a shift of perspective whose implications are pivotal for higher education” (Palmer, 2010, p. 11). Still, many students travel through their program with an element missing that is not discovered until they are fully vested. How do you know that the degree choice you have made will be something you still wish to pursue after graduation?  This project will address issues such as program change of college students, career satisfaction after graduation, career change throughout the lifespan, and suggest models to lower the instances of career change by incorporating project findings in the classroom.  

  

The Issue

Recently, it was mentioned that someone with an undergraduate degree in psychology is assumed to know therapy practices and procedures. That would also imply that a person studying biology would know how to practice medicine or perform surgeries. Yet, this is not the case. What if, after four years in an undergraduate program, the student realizes that their professional path does not suit them? How can we introduce students into their future profession early on so that they may have a fully appreciation of what it means to be a doctor, psychologist, accountant, engineer, etc.? This project aims to not only add knowledge and personal experience to the classroom, but also a glimpse into what it means to achieve your professional path goals.

 

The Setting

The setting for this project will be the undergraduate classroom, although it can be applied to postgraduate work as well.  It is appropriate to measure and apply these concepts to the college classroom as it sets the stage for the professional career.  While the use of this project can be applied in many subject areas, here the setting will be an Introduction to Psychology undergraduate course for beginning psychology majors. 

 

Theoretical Framework

Lifespan Development Theory

The lifespan development theory describes the change in career choice and/or career satisfaction as a linear change in individual adaptations and maturation over a lifespan (Jepsen, 2003, p. 217).  Adaptive contributions to change include a changing economy and life experiences.  On the other hand, maturation encompasses cognitive viewpoint and emotional reaction to these experiences.  In the end, researchers found that choice clarity was positively correlated to coping behaviors as they relate to the workplace and impact career stability over time.  It is choice clarity that education officials should provide to students in order to optimize levels of career stability over time.

Connectivism

“Learning needs and theories that describe learning principles and processes, should be reflective of underlying social environments” (Siemens, 2004, p. 1). Siemens (2004) finds that people branch off into fields that may be unrelated to their course of study. He also mentions that the majority of learning throughout a lifetime is received outside of the classroom (Siemens, 2004, p. 2). The theory of Connectivism involves learning from multiple sources by applying elements of behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism into one theory and developing them further. It suggests that learning happens in a variety of ways as the student actively combines information acquired to create their own interpretation of information (Kop, 2008, p. 3). This theory can be visualized through the use of concept mapping and presented to students in a meaningful way that adds to their existing experiences and reference points.

To incorporate connectivism with the understanding of career choices obtained in the classroom, multiple methods of learning must be considered. The student must learn what the job entails, act as if they are a part of that profession, and identify with experiences related to the career choice.

Attribution Theory

“According to Weiner’s attribution theory, people often seek to explain outcomes and events in their environment, especially those events that are novel, important, or unexpected” (Luzzo, 1996, p. 415).  By using environment as a context for defining career options, students create a mental representation of what it means to be in a particular professional setting based upon past experiences. Often these cognitive representations are incorrect.  By using internal models as a basis for career choice, the decision-making process excludes actual factors related to the career.  This can cause career change once the student is exposed to the realistic environment.

Researchers Luzzo, James, and Luna (1996) tested this theory using an attribution retaining method by having participants view a video designed to create internal attributions towards different career choices.  The control group viewed a similar video without the involvement of career attributions.  It was found that the creation of internal attributions played a significant role in the decision-making process.  These findings can be used in the classroom as a means to create realistic career characteristics and settings in order to increase the likelihood of proper career choice.

Dougherty, Dreher, and Whitely (1993) studied the contributions of early-career changes of MBA students.  While they found that career change of participants with this particular degree was lower than that of other graduate degrees, they did indicate a reason for career-change of graduate students to be related to an “increased value of their human capital” (Dougherty, et. al, 1993, p. 537).  This points to a lower job commitment of educated employees stemming from job expectations not being met within their career. It is important to understand where these expectations stem from in order to transform this mindset into a more realistic concept of a given profession.

Ethical Leadership

Theories of leadership provide an overview and history of research and findings of leadership. This includes the qualities, behaviors and traits that make up an ethical leader.  Psychologists and educational theorists have evaluated the complex characteristics and adaptations needed to be a leader since the 1930s (Williams, 2006). Through their research, traits of effective leaders have been identified as social intelligence, behavioral flexibility, need for power, energy, cognitive complexity, and persuasiveness (Zaccaro, 2001). These traits contribute to the overall qualities needed to lead in an organizational setting. Leaders influence others in effective behavioral delegation to accomplish necessary task completion by others in order to reach a set goal. In this case, the goal is education and career exploration through the reevaluation of internal career choice models.

Two factors have emerged that define the focus of leadership: being task focused and relationship focused (Williams, 2006). By valuing followers and demonstrating appreciation for their contributions to the task they are being led to complete, leaders create an atmosphere in which projects goals are obtained. These traits are emphasized again when observed in a school setting. According to Oyinlade (2003), effective leadership fits better in educational settings when the leader shows more people-oriented traits than a job-centered focus. The value placed upon the individual follower establishes a setting in which the follower achieves for the intrinsic motivation satisfied through appreciation and appraisal.

Behavior theories focus on “leader behaviors and differed dramatically from the trait approach—moving leadership conceptualization from what a leader is to what a leader does” (Williams, 2006). By observing the actions of a leader, researchers can identify specific behaviors needed to reach organizational goals. While behavioral models provide valuable information on the actions needed to lead, they deemphasize the importance of cognition and motivation.

In relation to integrative learning, leaders are needed to create the setting in which concepts and diversity are blended. They are at the head of the class presenting new knowledge while creating an open setting for insertion of situational experience and application from students. Looking back to the traits and motivational techniques required for such an experience, one can agree that this position takes cognitive complexity, behavioral flexibility and an appreciation for the opinions and experiences of student followers.

Implementation

Implementation of this project begins with research, continues in the classroom throughout the semester, but does not have a set period to end.  First, the instructor must perform research on career statistics, models, and meanings in order to be able to guide students with an educated foundation for implementation.  Instructors then create an atmosphere of openness and valued diversity to assist students with self-exploration that include personality traits, perceived goals, and career meanings.  Next, individualized projects can be introduced that guide the student to career research.  Once a career is chosen, experiences are added in the form of video modules, career overviews, professional interviews, and/or brief internships for course credit.  By placing value on the individual, creating skills for exploration, and establishing critical thinking processes, students gain the tools needed to make more successful career choices throughout their lifetime.

To apply these methods to the Introduction to Psychology course, a variety of professional outcomes will be presented.  The paths for a career in psychology, as listed by the American Psychological Association, include faculty positions, research, human services in the form of counseling, school psychology, and clinical work (Finno, 2009).  Each position must be clearly defined in terms of day to day duties, professional skills, attributes, and salaries, as well as educational and experience needed for each position.  Next, tools such as the Strong Interest Inventory can be taken “to help students discover their interests, preferences, and personal styles-exactly the information they need to choose a career they can be passionate about” (CPP, 2013). This assessment is commonly used by education institutions to match students to the career that best fits. The following step is the personalized exploration project that will serve as the course project due at the end of the term.  This project will consist of group and individual activities such as professional interviews (individual), video modules (group), and an optional brief internship experience to give each student a closer look at their projected career path and present alternative choices to the class as a whole.

Assessment

To measure the success of this project, a student evaluation will be given at the beginning and end of the course.  The first will be in a multiple choice and essay form to establish the learner’s understanding of career choices.  The last will be at the end of the semester in the same format, but will have additional questions that cover the material more in-depth.  These assignments will be compared, along with the results of the course project to determine a level of success achieved by the course concepts.  As a method of tracking individual and class career certainty, the Career Decidedness Scale (CDS) will be administered at the end of each semester.  This test measures levels of indecisiveness found in individual career choices (Hartung, 1995, p. 1). These assessments will provide information for areas of improvement to be implemented in future courses.

The Practitioner-Scholar

The practioner-scholar model “focuses on developing scholar-practitioners through learning that incorporates both theoretical knowledge and experience” (Capella, 2013). This is achieved through valuing past experiences, adding new knowledge, and exploring new scenarios that incorporate application of both knowledge and personal experience. This course project will focus on the career choices of students, individual attribution matching, their satisfaction with these choices long-term, and ways in which to help students gain a better understanding of the day to day activities within their future career in order to ensure a better fit. By building ethical relationships through trust and leadership, educators can motivate students to explore the unknown and expand upon previously held ideas of career meanings. When this is done in a deliberate manner of guided exploration, students are better equipped to make long-term career choices that will increase satisfaction and job stability over time.

 

 

 

References

Capella. (2013). Scholar Practitioner Learning Model. Retrieved from https://campus.capella.edu/web/policies-and-administration/learner-expectations/capellas-academic-community.

C.P.P. (2013). Strong Interest Inventory. Retrieved from https://www.cpp.com/products/strong/index.aspx.

Dougherty, T. W., Dreher, G. F., & Whitely, W. (1993). The MBA as careerist: An analysis of early-career job change. Journal Of Management, 19(3), 535-548. doi:10.1016/0149-2063(93)90003-6

Fino, A., Michalski, D., Hart, B. Wicherski, M., & Kohout, J. (2009). Report of the 2009 APA Salary Survey. APA Center for Workforce Studies. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/workforce/publications/09-salaries/index.aspx#section1.

Hartung, P. (1995). Assessing career certainty and choice status. ERIC Digests. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/Resources/Library/ERIC%20Digests/95-19.pdf.

Jepsen, D. A., & Dickson, G. L. (2003). Continuity in life-span career development: Career exploration as a precursor to career establishment. The Career Development Quarterly, 51(3), 217-233.

Kop, R., & Hill, A. (2008). Connectivism: Learning theory of the future or vestige of the past?. The International Review Of Research In Open And Distance Learning, 9(3). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/523/1103

Luzzo, D., James, T., & Luna, M. (1996). Effects of attributional retraining on the career beliefs and career exploration behavior of college students. Journal Of Counseling Psychology, 43(4), 415-422. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.43.4.415

Palmer, P. J., & Zajonc, A. (2010). The heart of higher education: A call to renewal. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Oyinlade, A., Gellhaus, M., & Darboe, K. (2003). Essential behavioral qualities for effective leadership in schools for students who are visually impaired: A national study. Journal Of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 97(7), 389-402.

Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism: A Theory for the Digital Age. Retrieved from http://www.ingedewaard.net/papers/connectivism/2005_siemens_ALearningTheoryForTheDigitalAge.pdf.

Williams, F., Ricciardi, D., & Blackbourn, R. (2006). Theories of Leadership. Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration. Vol. 2. 586-592. Sage Publications, Inc.

Zaccaro, S. J. (2001). Behavioral complexity theories of executive leadership: Empirical review and evaluation. The nature of executive leadership: A conceptual and empirical analysis of success (pp. 149-171). Washington, DC US: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10398-005

 

 

 

 

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